Storm flow - storm runoff resulting from storm precipitation involving both surface and throughflow. A storm hydrograph The starting and finishing level show the base flow of a river.
Lag time — period of time between the peak rainfall and peak discharge. The rising limb is the steep part of the discharge line that has a positive gradient, indicating that the discharge is increasing.
Smaller basins generally have shorter lag times because precipitation does not have as far to travel. Areas that have been urbanised result in an increase in the use of impermeable building materials.
Physical factors are the biotic factors which affect organisms and their surroundings, their surroundings in this case being the drainage basin and therefore the storm hydrograph is affected.
This is because at watershed is at roughly the same distance away from the point of discharge. How to cite this page Choose cite format: Roughly Circular shapes are common as are more elongated and narrow shapes.
When there is rapid melting of snow the peak discharge could be high. The falling limb is the opposite showing that the discharge is falling. Below is a storm hydrograph for the fictional River Shui: The hydrographs below show two contrasting environments. Whereas a slow light rainfall can be quickly absorbed by infiltration into the soil causing less excess water therefore a reduction in surface run-off and a longer lag time.
Whereas a slow light rainfall can be quickly absorbed by infiltration into the soil causing less excess water therefore a reduction in surface run-off and a longer lag time. Vegetation intercepts precipitation and slows the movement of water into river channels.
All these various factors contribute to how different drainage basins regulate and the way in which a river responds to precipitation. Rainwater enters the river quicker, reducing lag times, as surface runoff is faster than baseflow or through flow.
Storm hydrographs allow us to investigate the relationship between a rainfall event and discharge. Peak rainfall - the point on a flood hydrograph when rainfall is at its greatest. When there is heavy snowfall large amounts of water are kept in temporary storage on the surface therefore river levels drop.
This is much faster than groundflow, interflow and throughflow so the lag time is reduced. Whereas drainage basin with a more extended form or profile tends to hold a longer slowdown clip than the round form basin because of the appendages of the basin to make the gauging station.
Where gradients are steep with a lot of sloping uneven land such as a valley, water runs-off faster and reaches the river channel more quickly than that of a gentler more even landscape where water will slowly crawl off in to the river channel such as plains.
The type of precipitation can also have an impact. For instance if the basin is small it is most likely expected that the rainfall will reach the main channel more rapidly than in a larger basin where the rainfall has more area to cover and further to travel therefore reaching the main channel at a slower rate.
These can be used to show annual discharge patters of flow in relation to climate. Steep-sided drainage basins have shorter lag times than shallower basins - water flows more quickly increasing peak discharge. As storm water enters the drainage basin the discharge rates increase.
This is because water flows more quickly on the steep slopes down to the river. Relief on the other hand refers to the general unevenness of the basin or the elevation or difference in elevation of the landscape. This leads to a short lag time and an increase in peak discharge.
Areas of permeable rock and soil allow more infiltration and less surface runn off. Therefore there is less surface run-off and river levels drop and there is a longer lag time. Also plant roots especially those of trees reduce through flow by taking up water from the soil.
This means infiltration levels decrease and surface runoff increases. The peak discharge is also lower as it takes water longer to reach the river channel. The discharge of a river changes over time depending on a few factors. Water Cycle - En Garde game Rivers - Discharge River discharge is the volume of water flowing through a river channel.
Where gradients are steep with a batch of inclining uneven land such as a vale. The fall in discharge back to base level is shown in the receding limb.
Human Factors Affecting Storm Hydrographs There are a range of human factors that affect the shape of a storm hydrograph. The discharge from a drainage basin depends on precipitation, evapotranspiration and storage factors.Home > A Level and IB > Geography > Physical and Human Factors that Affect a Storm Hydrograph.
Physical and Human Factors that Affect a Storm Hydrograph. / 5. Hide Show resource information. Geography; AS; AQA; The type also effects the discharge and lag time - snowmelt in the spring takes a long time to flow into the river making lag.
Physical factors are the biotic factors which affect organisms and their surroundings, their surroundings in this case being the drainage basin and therefore the storm hydrograph is affected. These physical factors would be factors such as Basin, Size Shape and Relief, types of precipitation, land use; they contribute to regulating the ways in which a river responds to precipitation.
The Effects of Physical Factors on the Storm Hydrograph Essay The Effects of Physical Factors on the Storm Hydrograph The Storm Hydrograph refers to graphs that show how a drainage basin responds to a.
Rural areas with predominantly permeable rock increases infiltration and decreases surface runoff. This increases lag time.
The peak discharge is also lower as it takes water longer to reach the river channel.
Physical Factors Affecting Storm Hydrographs There are a range of physical factors that affect the shape of a storm hydrograph. These include: 1. Physical factors affecting storm hydrographs. Peak discharge – the point on a flood hydrograph when river discharge is at its greatest.
Peak rainfall – the point of a flood hydrograph when rainfall is at its greatest. Lag time – period of time between the peak rainfall and peak discharge. The type also effects the discharge and lag time - snowmelt in the spring takes a long time to flow into the river making lag time long, a long sloping rising limb and a low peak discharge.Download